Testosterone is a hormone produced in the male testes. During a boy's pubescent years (ages 9 to 14), there is an increase in production that leads to male secondary sexual characteristics such as a deeper voice, more muscle mass, facial hair growth and enlargement of the Adam's apple (among others). Some teenage boys experience these puberty changes at later ages than others. The timing of puberty is often genetically determined (through heredity), but other factors can play a role in delaying it, such as poor nutrition, physical trauma and certain diseases. Stimulating testosterone production naturally is possible in teen boys, although in rare cases hormone therapy may be needed to trigger and complete puberty.
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So we know we don't want to go too low with estradiol or we could end up with brittle bones and hip fractures like a lot of 75 year old women struggle with. Furthermore, common sense dictates that more is not better when it comes to estradiol. Many men who go on HRT and end up with estradiol in the 40's and 50's very commonly have a certain suite of side effects: gyno, water retention, lowered libido, loss of erectile strength, moodiness, poor sleep etc. If you've been around Peak Testosterone Forum at all, you know this is actually quite common. And many experts have concern about long term effects as well, because high estradiol may increase clotting risk, arterial plaque and prostate issues as I mentioned.