Detection of halotestin and other such illegal anabolic steroids in sports is achieved by GS-MS identification of urinary excreted anabolic steroids and their metabolites. In a test for halotestin, a dry residue obtained from a urine sample is dissolved in dimethylformamide and a sulfur trioxide-pyridine complex and is heated with 1% potassium carbonate solution. Halotestin and many of its metabolites contain two polar hydroxyl groups, leading to intermolecular hydrogen bonding that increases their boiling point and reduces volatility. In order to attain a gaseous sample for GC-MS, the products of hydrolysis are extracted, dissolved in methanol and derivatised to form volatile trimethylsilyl (TMS) esters by adding N -methyl- N -trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) and trimethylsilylimidazole (TMSImi). 
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